This five-pager has it: all you ever wanted to know about the Universe. Electron mass and proton mass are seen as input to the model. To the most famous failed experiment in all of classical physics – the 1887 Michelson-Morley experiment, which disproved aether theories and established the absoluteness of lightspeed – we should add the Kamioka Nucleon Decay Experiment, which firmly established that protons do not decay. All the rest is history. 🙂
Post scriptum (26 April): I added another five-pager on fundamental concepts on ResearchGate, which may or may not help to truly understand what might be the case (I am paraphrasing Wittgenstein’s definition of reality here). It is on potentials, and it explains why thinking in terms of neat 1/r or 1/r2 functions is not all that helpful: reality is fuzzier than that. Even a simple electrostatic potential may be not very simple. The fuzzy concept of near and far fields remains useful.
I am actually quite happy with the paper, because it sort of ‘completes’ my thinking on elementary particles in terms of ring currents. It made me feel like it is the first time I truly understand the complementarity/uncertainty principle – and that I invoke it to make an argument.
I just wrapped up a discussion with some mainstream physicists, producing what I think of as a final paper on the nuclear force. I was struggling with the apparent non-conservative nature of the nuclear potential, but now I have the solution. It is just like an electric dipole field: not spherically symmetric. Nice and elegant.
I can’t help copying the last exchange with one of the researchers. He works at SLAC and seems to believe hydrinos might really exist. It is funny, and then it is not.
Me: “Dear X – That is why I am an amateur physicist and don’t care about publication. I do not believe in quarks and gluons. Do not worry: it does not prevent me from being happy. JL”
X: “Dear Jean Louis – The whole physics establishment believes that neutron is composed of three quarks, gluons and a see of quark-antiquark pairs. How does that fit into your picture? Best regards, X”
Me: “I see the neutron as a tight system between positive and negative electric charge – combining electromagnetic and nuclear force. The ‘proton + electron’ idea is vague. The idea of an elementary particle is confusing in discussions and must be defined clearly: stable, not-reducible, etcetera. Neutrons decay (outside of the nucleus), so they are reducible. I do not agree with Heisenberg on many fronts (especially not his ‘turnaround’ on the essence of the Uncertainty Principle) so I don’t care about who said what – except Schroedinger, who fell out with both Dirac and Heisenberg, I feel. His reason to not show up at the Nobel Prize occasion in 1933 (where Heisenberg received the prize of the year before, and Dirac/Schroedinger the prize of the year itself) was not only practical, I think – but that’s Hineininterpretierung which doesn’t matter in questions like this. JL”
X: “Dear Jean Louis – I want to to make doubly sure. Do I understand you correctly that you are saying that neutron is really a tight system of proton and electron ? If that is so, it is interesting that Heisenberg, inventor of the uncertainty principle, believed the same thing until 1935 (I have it from Pais book). Then the idea died because. Pauli’s argument won, that the neutron spin 1/2 follows the Fermi-Dirac statistics and this decided that the neutron is indeed an elementary particle. This would very hard sell, if you now, after so many years, agree with Heisenberg. By the way, I say in my Phys. Lett. B paper, which uses k1/r + k2/r2 potential, that the radius of the small hydrogen is about 5.671 Fermi. But this is very sensitive to what potential one is using. Best regards, X.”
The work on the neutron model inspired me to have another look at the 1/4 factor which bothered me when applying mass-without-mass models to the proton. I think I nailed it: it is just another form factor. Have a look at the proton paper. Mystery solved – finally ! 🙂
I’ve reflected a while on my two last papers on the neutron (n = p + e model) and the deuteron nucleus (D = 2p + e) and made a quick YouTube video on it. A bit lengthy, as usual. I hope you enjoy/like it. 🙂
As part of my ventures into QCD, I quickly developed a Zitterbewegung model of the neutron, as a complement to my first sketch of a deuteron nucleus. The math of orbitals is interesting. Whatever field you have, one can model is using a coupling constant between the proportionality coefficient of the force, and the charge it acts on. That ties it nicely with my earlier thoughts on the meaning of the fine-structure constant.
My realist interpretation of quantum physics focuses on explanations involving the electromagnetic force only, but the matter-antimatter dichotomy still puzzles me very much. Also, the idea of virtual particles is no longer anathema to me, but I still want to model them as particle-field interactions and the exchange of real (angular or linear) momentum and energy, with a quantization of momentum and energy obeying the Planck-Einstein law.
The proton model will be key. We cannot explain it in the typical ‘mass without mass’ model of zittering charges: we get a 1/4 factor in the explanation of the proton radius, which is impossible to get rid of unless we assume some ‘strong’ force come into play. That is why I prioritize a ‘straight’ attack on the electron and the proton-electron bond in a primitive neutron model.
The calculation of forces inside a muon-electron and a proton (see ) is an interesting exercise: it is the only thing which explains why an electron annihilates a positron but electrons and protons can live together (the ‘anti-matter’ nature of charged particles only shows because of opposite spin directions of the fields – so it is only when the ‘structure’ of matter-antimatter pairs is different that they will not annihilate each other).
In short, 2021 will be an interesting year for me. The intent of my last two papers (on the deuteron model and the primitive neutron model) was to think of energy values: the energy value of the bond between electron and proton in the neutron, and the energy value of the bond between proton and neutron in a deuteron nucleus. But, yes, the more fundamental work remains to be done !
Cheers – Jean-Louis